INTRODUCTION TO NT GREEK LANGUAGE
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       Introduction to NT Greek

Introduction to New Testament Greek covers some essential elements of the grammar of Greek and introduces some basic vocabulary. It introduces students to aspects of translation of New Testament Greek  as well as the main lexical aids. On completion of the subject students should be able to translate basic nominal and verbal sentences.

 

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Required Reading Click on links to view

          Download Intro NT Greek Textbook (Complete Exercises Forward to Professor)

Short Syntax of New Testament Greek

Pocket Lexicon Greek New Testament

Reference Material

The Mythology Of Greece And Rome

Download Interlinear Greek New Testament

Click on link below to download Westcott-Hort text from 1881, combined with the NA26/27 variants. (only NA26/27 variants visible)

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Helps to Learn the Greek Alphabet

http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/greek/interactive.htm

Greek New Testament with Dictionary and Helps Link

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0155

Greek Grammar Helps Link

http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/greek/

http://www.biblicalgreek.com/index.php?next=0&ba=gram_search&person%5B%5D=1&bible_book=1&clean_lemma=

Greek Vocabulary Helps

http://chss2.montclair.edu/classics/javascript/Greek/greekjava.html

http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~ancgreek/ancient_greek_start.html

Greek Exercises

http://www.ibiblio.org/koine/greek/lessons/

Weekly Tests

  • Week 1 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 2 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 3 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 4 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 5 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 6 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 7 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

  • Week 8 - 10 words test / all words test / word list

    Comprehensive Tests

  • 40 words evenly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 80 words evenly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 160 words evenly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 25 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 50 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 75 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 100 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 150 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  • 200 words randomly taken from all weekly exams.

  •  

     

    The Greek Alphabet

    THE GREEK ALPHABET

    Click on the letter below to hear the pronunciation of the letters of the alphabet.

    Letters Names Sounds Capitals
    a alpha palm, father A
    b beta big B
    g gamma graphic (but before g, k, c as angle, anchor, ink) G
    d delta delta D
    e epsilon end E
    z zeta zoology Z
    h eta chaos, late H
    q theta theater Q
    i iota political I
    k kappa keep K
    l lambda logical L
    m mu monologue M
    n nu autonomy N
    x xi exit X
    o omicron cosmos O
    p pi apostle P
    r rho prophet, martyr R
    s, " sigma synthesis, stoic S
    t tau martyr T
    u upsilon physical, martyr U
    f phi philosphy F
    c chi chronology C
    y psi cups Y
    w omega ego, telophone W

    THE DIPHTHONGS

    Diphthongs (Greek: double sound) are combinations of two vowels that are pronounced together or in rapid succession forming one vowel sound or syllable.

    Click on the diphthongs below to hear their pronunciation:

    Diphthong Sound
    ai aisle
    au sauerkraut
    ei eight
    oi toil
    ou through
    ui week
    eu e (in let) + oo (in soon) = e-oo
    hu a (in late) + oo (in soon) = a-oo

     

    THE IMPROPER DIPHTHONGS

    The socalled "improper diphthongs" consist of the vowels a, h, or w with the letter iota written underneath (iota subscript). The improper diphthongs are pronounced exactly like their respective long vowels without the iota:

    a/ h/ w/

     BREATHING MARK EXAMPLES

    Every word beginning with a vowel has a smooth or rough breathing mark to indicate how this initial vowel is pronounced. Smooth breathing (   j) indicates no change in the sound; rough breathing (    J ) is pronounced like the aspirated h in English:

    Click below for examples:

    Smooth Breathing
    ajgavph ajdelfov" oijkiva

     

    Rough Breathing
    o{ti euJrivskw hJmevra

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize and learn to write ALL of the letters of the alphabet, as well as to pronounce them correctly.

     

     

    Writing the Greek Letters

     

    These letters are written on the line: a e i k n o p s t u w.

    These letters are written partly on and partly below the line: g h m r j x

    These letters are written partly on and partly above the line: d q l

    These letters are written on, above and below the line: b z c f y

    The capital letters will only be used when they begin a proper noun. Sentences begin with small letters.

    ASSIGNMENT: Practice writing all of the letters above on lined paper so that they are correctly written.

     

    Lesson One: The Greek Alphabet

    Sight and Sounds of the Greek Letters

    Study Aid Level Three: Practice Writing the Greek Letters

    Practice writing all the Greek capital letters with their matching small letters

    in their alphabetical order. Pronounce each letter as you write it. Write

    and say these letters until you can do so with ease.

    How to write Greek letters

    The arrows show you where to start when you write Greek letters. Always remember to write the accents and breathing marks, as well as the iota subscripts!

    How to draw Greek letters

     

    A a

    B b

    G g

    D d

    E e

    Z z

    H h

    Q q

    Lesson One: The Greek Alphabet

    Sight and Sounds of the Greek Letters ________________________________________________________________

    I i

    K k

    L l

    M m

    N n

    C c

    O o

    P p

    R r

    Lesson One: The Greek Alphabet Page

    Sight and Sounds of the Greek Letters

    ________________________________________________________________

     

    S s

    S j

    T t

    U u

    F f

    X x

    Y y

    W w

    Final Sigma

    Lesson One: The Greek Alphabet Page SA1:44

    Sight and Sounds of the Greek Letters (Module A)

    ________________________________________________________________

    Practice writing all the Greek capital letters in their alphabetical order in the

    space provided below. Aim for simplicity, clarity, and ease of recognition.

    The Greek Alphabet
    Do you know your letters?
    Part 1

    You may use this NTGreek Lesson Aid to see if you know the different Greek alphabetical characters. 

    Directions: A Greek alphabetical character is displayed on the left.  Use the pull-down menu to choose the correct answer.  At the bottom of the page, you may choose the option to see the correct answers and your score, as well as try other Greek alphabetical characters.

      

      

       

     

      

    Vowel Combinations

     

    When two or more vowels (a e i o u) occur together they are pronounced as one letter. The following chart will indicate the correct pronunciation of these vowel combinations in Greek (called diphthongs):

     

    ai as in aisle
    ei as in height
    oi as in oil
    au as in kraut
    eu as in feud
    ou as in group
    ui pronounced like wee

     

    Whenever gg, or kg occur together, they are pronounced "ng" as in "angel"

    ASSIGNMENT: Practice correctly pronouncing the vowel combinations above.

     

    Lesson 2: Breathing Marks

    When r begins a word, it must have what is called the rough breathing mark, (a & on top of it), and when any word begins with a vowel it also must have either a rough breathing mark, or a smooth breathing mark ( an 0 on top of it). For example:

    r& = a rough breathing mark (pronounced with an "h" sound)

    a0 = a smooth breathing mark pronounced simply as "a"

     

    Accent Marks

    The marks found above letters in Greek are called accent marks (apart from the rough and smooth breathing marks we have already discussed). These marks help in pronunciation of words; but we will simply note them and not memorize them. Usage will, in the long run, make these marks self explanatory.

     

    Punctuation Marks

    In Greek there are 4 punctuation marks; the comma (,) and period (.) correspond to the English comma and period. The colon (:) appears above the line and corresponds to the English colon. The question mark (;) is this sign.

     

     

    Lesson 3: Present Active Indicative

     

    In Greek, as in English, there are different parts of speech: verbs, which are words that describe action; nouns, which name objects; and adjectives, which modify nouns. There are other parts of speech which we will discuss later. For now, we will focus on one particular type of verb.

    When one talks about Greek verbs one must be very clear as to which kind of verb one is talking about. Greek verbs, you see, have "Tense", which describes both kind and time of action. They also have "Voice", which indicates whether the subject of the verb is acting (active voice) or being acted upon (passive voice). Greek verbs also have "Mood", which shows the verb's relation to reality. And finally, Greek verbs also have number (singular or plural). We will see many examples of aong; so do not worry now about whether or not you fully grasp these ideas. You will!!!!

    The first kind of verb we will discuss is the one which occurs most often in the New Testament: Present, Active, Indicative. That is, the tense is present (describing action taking place now), the voice is active (meaning that the verb's subject is acting and not being acted upon), and the mood is indicative (which demonstrates true reality). Present, Active, Indicative verbs are translated by a present tense English verb. (See the examples below in the vocabulary).

    Before we go any further, the following words will need to be memorized by the student for vocabulary. These words occur very frequently in the New Testament.

    ginwskw = I know

    grafw = I write

    didaskw = I teach

    e0geirw = I raise up, lift up

    lambanw = I receive, take to myself

    legw = I say, I speak

    pempw = I send

    ferw = I bear, I carry, I bring

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize these vocabulary words and learn to correctly pronounce them.

    You will notice that each of these verbs ends with the letter w. And they are all translated by "I...." In Greek, the verb called the present, active, indicative, always ends with the following endings (called conjugations):

     

    Singular

    -w = I ...

    -eij = you ...

    -ei = he, she or it, depending on the context

     

    Plural

    -omen = we...

    -ete = you

    -ousi= they

    -ein = infinitive

    Thus, to learn to recognize the Present, Active, Indicative, you simply need to recognize the verbal ending. You can take any of the verbs ending, add the endings above, and have the correct conjugation.

    For instance:

    legw= I say

    legeij= = You say

    legei= He, she or it (depending on the contexts) says

    legomen= We say

    legete= You say

    legousi= They say

    legein= to say

    ASSIGNMENT: Take each of the verbs from the vocabulary above and conjugate them, then translate them.

    Example:

    didask + w = I teach

    didask + eij = you teach

    didask + ei = he, she or it teaches

    didask + omen = we teach

    didask + ete = you teach

    didask + ousi = they teach

    didask + ein = to teach

    Now, do the rest of the verbs for yourself (but don't include the + marker, it is simply there to show you how conjugation is done).

     

    Lesson 4: Second Declension Nouns

     

    Vocabulary:

    1. Verbs

    a0gw- I lead

    a0kouw- I hear

    blepw- I see

    e0xw- I have

    luw- I loose, I destroy

    2. Second Declension Nouns

    a0ggeloj- messenger

    a0delfoj- brother

    douloj- slave, servant

    karpoj- fruit

    logoj- word

    a0nqrwpoj- man

    a0postoloj- apostle, messenger

    a0rtoj- bread

    gamoj- marriage

    dwron- gift

    qanatoj- death

    i&eron-- temple

    liqoj- stone

    nomoj- law

    o0xloj- crowd

    ui&oj- son

    kai- and

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above. Note that list 1 are verbs, and list 2 are nouns of the second declension.

    There are three ways of classifying nouns in Greek. The second declension (class) are the most frequent in the New Testament, so it is with these that we begin our study of nouns.

    The following endings are attached to the noun root to obtain the endings of the second declension:

     

    Singular Plural Case
     
    -oj -oi nominative
     
    -ou -wn genitive
     
    -w| -oij locative, instrumental, dative (note the w| subscript)
     
    -on -ouj accusative
     
    -e - (none) vocative
     

    All that one needs to do to decline a noun in Greek, if it is a second declension noun, is add these endings to the stem.

    For example, the stem of a0nqrwpoj is a0nqrwp- to which are added the endings of the second declension as follows:

     

    Singular Plural
     
    a0nqrwp- oj a0nqtwp-oi
     
    a0nqrwp-ou a0nqrwp-wn
     
    a0nqrwp-w| a0nqrwp-oij
     
    a0nqrwp-on a0nqrwp-ouj
     
    a0nqtwp-e (none)
     

    To find the stem of any noun, simply drop off the nominative ending (the way it is listed in the dictionary) and add the endings above. (See how simple it is!)

    ASSIGNMENT: Decline (or add the appropriate endings, as above) all the nouns in the vocabulary at the beginning of lesson 4.

    Now, we must briefly discuss the meanings of these endings:

    The Nominative case (or ending) is the case that the subject of the sentence is found in.

    The Genitive case is the case used to describe ownership of something. For example, oi0kou a0nqrwpou means "a man's house" or "a house of a man".

    The Locative case indicates where something is located. "oi0kw| " means "in a house"

    The Instrumental case indicates the means by which something is. "oi0kw| " means "by means of a house".

    The Dative case indicates the direction of something. "oi0kw| " means "to a house".

    The astute reader will notice that the Locative, Instrumental and Dative cases are all the same in form. The correct translation can only be gained by means of the context.

    The Accusative case shows limits. "oi0kon" means "the house" (only).

    The Vocative (which occurs only in the singular) is the case of address. "a0nqrwpe" means "man!"

    Accurate translation means that the translator must know these forms and their meanings.

    ASSIGMENT: Translate the following sentences:

    a0nqrwpoj ginwskei ton nomon

    pempete dwra tw| i&erw|

    lambanw dwra karpou kai a0rton

     

    Lesson 5: 1st Declension Nouns

    As we begin this lesson the student needs to be reminded that learning Greek is like washing an elephant. We have washed a little, and we have a lot more to go. But don't get discouraged! Stick with it and the rewards will far outweigh the trouble.

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0gaph- love ei0rhnh- peace
     
    a0lhqeia- truth e0kklhsia- church
     
    a(martia- sin e0ntolh- commandment
     
    basileia- kingdom h(mera- day
     
    glwssa- tongue maqhthj- disciple
     
    grafh- writing, Scripture messia- messiah
     
    didach- teaching, instruction parabolh- parable
     
    doca- glory profhthj- prophet
     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: write and memorize this vocabulary list.

    This lesson will help the student recognize and translate 1st declension nouns. The student is urged to review lesson 4 and its description of the various cases. They also apply here, as in 2nd declension nouns.

    The following table must be memorized:

     

    Singular Plural Case
     
    - a -ai nominative
     
    - aj -wn genitive
     
    - a| -aij locative, instrumental, dative
     
    - an -aj accusative
     

     

     

    These endings are simply added to the stem of the feminine nouns of the 1st declension (masculine nouns of the 1st declension are different): for example:

     

    Singular Plural Case
     
    basilei + a basilei + ai nominative
     
    basilei + aj basilei + wn genitive
     
    basilei + a| basilei + aij locative, instrumental, dative
     
    basilei + an basilei + aj accusative
     

     

     

    Easy, right? Well it gets a little complicated now. For when the stem of a noun ends in j, ll or a double consonant (z, c, s, y) then the following table applies:

     

     

     

    Singular Plural Case
     
    - a -ai nominative
     
    -hj -wn genitive
     
    -h| -aij locative, instrumental, dative
     
    -hn -aj accusative
     

     

     

    As before, these endings are simply added to the stem of the noun. And, as before, these endings must be memorized.

    Now, when a 1st declension noun is masculine in gender, then it has the following endings:

     

     

     

    Singular Plural Case
     
    -aj -ai nominative
     
    -ou -wn genitive
     
    -a| -aij locative, instrumental, dative
     
    -an -aj accusative
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the table above.

    Now we can turn to our last item of business in this lesson; an examination of the definite article. Greek has no indefinite article (the english "a" or "an"). The definite article is declined like any other noun, in the following manner (in the masculine, feminine and neuter genders):

     

    Singular

     

      Masculine Feminine Neuter
     
    Nominative o ( h ( to
     
    Genitive tou thj tou
     
    Loc., Ins., Dat. tw| th| tw|
     
    Accusative ton thn to
     

    Plural

     

      Masculine Feminine Neuter
     
    Nominative oi( ai( ta
     
    Genitive twn twn twn

     

    Loc., Inst., Dat. toij taij toij

     

    Accusative touj taj ta

     

     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the table above, and translate the following sentences:

    1. o( a0postoloj didaskei parabolhn toij a0nqrwpoij

    2. legomen logouj a0lhqeiaj o0xloij a0nqrwpwn kai maqhtwn

     

    Lesson 6: Adjectives

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0gaqoj- good kainoj- new
     
    a0gaphtoj- beloved kakoj- bad

     

    a0llon- another (of the same kind) kaloj- beautiful

     

    basilikoj- royal mikroj- small

     

    dikaioj- righteous monoj- only, alone

     

    e0sxatoj- last nekroj- dead

     

    e(teroj- another (of a different kind) pistoj- faithful

     

    prwtoj- first ponhroj- evil

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary list above.

    Like nouns, adjectives have gender, number, and case. An adjective is a word that modifies a noun- i.e., "a new house". the adjective is "new" and the noun is "house".

    When an adjective is used in Greek it will agree (match) the noun in gender, case, and number. For example:

     

    a0nqrwpoj a0gaqoj = a good man

    a0nqrwpwn a0gaqwn = good men

     

    and so on.

    Thus, there is nothing new to memorize here, since the student has already memorized the 1st and 2nd declension nouns. What one MUST remember is that an adjective WILL agree with the noun it modifies in gender (masculine or feminine), case (nominative, genitive, etc), and number (singular or plural).

    Of particular importance in translating Greek is whether or not the definite article is used IMMEDIATELY before the adjective. Note the following sentences very carefully, paying particular attention to the placement of the article and the translation given:

     

    o( a0gaqoj logoj = the good word

    o( logoj o( a0gaqoj = the good word

     

    and

     

    o( logoj a0gaqoj = the word IS good

    a0gaqoj o( logoj = the word IS good

     

    If you noticed, when the article immediately precedes the adjective then it is translated "the... (whatever the adjective is). When the article does not precede the adjective, the English wore the translation accurate.

    (Note: all of these rules are subject to fine tuning as we learn more of this tremendous language).

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences as accurately as possible:

    1. o( a0gaphtoj maqhthj a0kouei touj a0gaqouj logouj

    2. o( basilikoj nomoj didaskei thn doxan a0gaphj

    3. o( a0postoloj ginwskei touj dikaiouj kai taj dikaiaj

    4. o( dikaioj a0nqrwpoj grafei parabolhn

     

    Lesson 7: Prepositions

     

    Vocabulary:

    a0na- up, again

    a0nti- against, instead of

    a0po- from, away from

    dia- through, by (with genitive); because of (with accusative)

    e0k- out of (before a word begining with a vowel = ex)

    e0ij- into, unto

    e0n- in, on (with locative); by (with instrumental)

    e0pi- upon, on, at (with genitive); over (with locative); up to (with accusative)

    kata- down from (with genitive); according to (with accusative)

    meta- with (with genitive); after (with accusative)

    para- from (with genitive); beside (with locative); along (with accusative)

    peri- about, concerning (with genitive); about, around (with accusative)

    pro- before

    proj- at (with locative); to (with accusative)

    sun- with, together with

    u(per- over (with accusative)

    u(po- by (agency) (with genitive); under (with accusative)

    The first thing the student will notice is that some of the prepositions have different meanings when they occur with a particular case. These distincitions must be learned.

    ASSIGNMENT: The vocabulary above must be memorized.

    Prepositions are words that help nouns, verbs and adjectives express themselves clearly. Prepositions do not change in form, as do nouns, verbs and adjectives. The forms above are the forms that will always occur, with one small exception.

    Prepositions ending with a vowel (except pro and peri) drop that vowel when the next word in the sentence begins with a vowel. For example:

     

    a0po a0delfou becomes a0p a0delfou

    dia h(mera becomes di h(mera, etc.

     

    Note: Prepositions have shades of meaning that are not indicated above. The translator must be sensitive to the context to translate them correctly, as well as make liberal use of the lexicon.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences:

    1. o( a0postoloj didaskei e0n th| e0kklesia|

    2. o( maqhthj legei parabolhn peri thj basileiaj

    3. o( messiaj legei parabolhn e0n logoij a0lhqeiaj

     

    Lesson 8 - Present, Passive, Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0naginwskw- I read qeoj- God
     
    baptizw- I baptize kardia- heart
     
    khrussw- I preach, proclaim kosmoj- world
     
    menw- I abide, remain o(doj- road, way
     
    swzw- I save, rescue inteknon desert
     
    topoj- place zwh- life

     

    fwnh- voice, sound
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary list above. Notice that the list contains both verbs and nouns.

    The passive verb, (the topic of this lesson) is used when the subject of the verb is being acted upon, rather than acting. For example:

     

    luw- I loose

    luomai- I am being loosed

     

     

     

    The following table shows the endings of the present, passive, indicative:

     

     

     

    -mai = I am being... -meqa = we are being...
     
    -h| = you are being.... - sqe = you (pl) are being...
     
    -tai = he is being... - ntai = they are being...
     
    - sqai = (infinitive)
     

     

     

    These endings are added to the stem of the verb, and a connecting vowel is added (o before m or n, e before any other letter). For instance:

    lu-o-mai = I am being loosed lu-o-meqa = we are being loosed

    lu-h| = you are being loosed lu-e-sqai = you are being loosed (pl)

    lu-e-tai = he is being loosed lu-o-ntai = they are being loosed

    lu-e-sqai= to be loosed

    The student will notice quite clearly the stem of the verb lu, the connecting vowel, and the verbal ending. These must be memorized.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the endings and connecting vowels of the present, passive, indicative. Then take the vocabulary verbs at the beginning of this lesson and conjugate them all in the present, passive, indicative (as above).

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences:

    1. (oi( oi0koi luontai u(po twn ponhrwn a0nqrwpwn

    2. o( pistoj a0delfoj swzetai u(po tou maqhtou tou mession

    3. zwh a0po tou ui(ou menei e0n toij dikaioij a0nqrwpoij

    4. o( a0gaqoj profhthj baptizei ta tekna

    5. a0naginwskomen thn grafhn kai ginwskomen thn o(don a0gaphj

    Lesson 9: Present, Middle, Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    0ai0rw- I lift docazw- I glorify
     
    a0postellw- I send as an emissary e0sqiw- I eat
     
    bainw- I go krinw- I judge
     
    katabainw- I go down sunagw- I gather together
     
    a0nabainw- I go up
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above.

    The present, middle, indicative is used to show that the subject is acting so as to participate in some way in the results of the action. This means that such verbs should be translated reflexively; i.e., o( a0nqrwpoj e0geiretai = the man is raising himself up.

    Now, for the good news! The form of the present, middle, indicative is exactly the same as the present, passive, indicative.

    So, the difference is function rather than form. The context of the passage will indicate whether the verb is middle or passive in function.

    Since the student has already learned the form, the following table shows the function of the present, middle, indicative:

     

     

     

    luomai- I loose for myself luomeqa- we loose for ourselves
     
    luh|- you loose for yourself luesqe- you loose for yourselve
     
    luetai- he looses for himself luontai- they loose for themselves
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences as present, middle, indicatives.

    1. oi( a0nqrwpoi lambanontai a0rton kai karpon

    2. krinetai e0n th| parabolh| tou profhton

    3. oi( o0cloi e0sqiousin (note the -n on the end of this verb. This letter is called a moveable -n and it occurs quite frequently on the end of the 3rd person plural verb) a0rton kai o( messiaj docazetai

     

    Lesson 10: Personal Pronouns and the verb "to be"

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    e0gw- I ei0mi- I am
     
    sou- You de- but
     
    0au0toj- he ou0- not
     
    au0th- she ou0k- not
     
    au0ton- it ou0c- not
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary list above.

    Some notes of importance:

    The word de never stands at the beginning of a clause.

    In Greek the negative particle is normally found immediately in front of the word is negates.

    Now, to the personal pronouns. They are declined as follows:

     

    First Person (I)

     

      Singular Plural
     
    Nom e0gw- I h(meij- we
     
    Gen e0mou- of me h(mwn- of us
     
    L.I.D. e0moi- to me h(min- to us
     
    Acc. e0me- me h(maj- us
     

     

     

    (The student should note that the abbreviations for the cases are given above, and will be used from this point on. This should cause no difficulty, as you know the case names by now).

     

    Second Person (you)

     

      Singular Plural
     
    Nom. su- you u(meij- you
     
    Gen. sou- of you u(mwn- of you
     
    L.I.D. soi- to you u(min- to you
     
    Acc. se- you u(maj- you
     

     

     

     

    Third Person (he, she, it)

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neuter
     
    Nom au0toj- he au0th- she au0to- it
     
    Gen au0tou- of him au0thj- of her au0tou- of it
     
    L.I.D. au0tw|- to him au0th|- to her au0tw|- to it
     
    Acc. au0ton- him au0thn- her au0to- it
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neuter
     
    Nom au0toi- they au0tai- they au0ta- they
     
    Gen au0twn- of them au0twn- of them au0twn- of them
     
    L.I.D. au0toij- to them au0taij- to them au0toij- to them
     
    Acc au0touj- them au0taj- them au0ta- them
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the personal pronouns above.

    A pronoun agrees with the noun it is replacing in case, gender and number (just like an adjective).

    Whenever the phrase o( au0toj occurs it must be translated "the same".

    All of these pronouns must be carefully translated according to their context. Only practice in this art can help one correctly render these pronouns.

    ab Now, to our next toto be".

    The verb ei0mi (to be) is conjugated below.

    ei0mi- I am e0smen- we are

    ei0- you are e0ste- you are

    e0sti (n)- he, she, it is ei0si(n)- they are

    The moveable -n occurs frequently in this verb. When it occurs, simply note it. It does not change the translation at all. It was simply used as a syllable closer.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the verb ei0mi as it is conjugated above. Then, translate the following sentences:

    1. didaskw touj ui0ouj mou kai legw au0toij parabolhn

    2. e0gw ei0mi douloj, su de ei0 a0postoloj

    3. oi( a0delfoi h(mwn blepousin h(maj kai h(meij didaskomen au0touj

     

    Lesson 11: Demonstrative Pronouns

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a(martanw- I sin eu0aggelion- gospel, good news
     
    a(martia- sin kurioj- lord, sir, Lord
     
    a(martwloj- sinner laoj- people
     
    gar- for ou(toj, au(th, touto- this, this one (masc., fem., neut)
     
    didaskaloj- teacher xristoj- annointed, Christ
     
    e0keinoj- that, that one xara- joy
     
    e0paggelia- promise o(ti- because, that
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above.

    There are two demonstrative pronouns in Greek. The near demonstrative ou(toj points to something near at hand; while the far demonstrative e0keinoj points to something further away.

    For example:

     

    ou(toj a0nqrwpoj = this man

    blepw e0keinhn thn e0kklhsian = I see that church

     

     

     

    The Demonstratives are declined like adjectives. See the table below:

     

    Singular

     

      masc fem neut
     
    Nom. e0keinoj e0keinh e0keino
     
    Gen e0keinou e0keinhj e0keinou
     
    L.I.D. e0keinw| e0keinh| e0keinw|
     
    Acc. e0keinon e0keinhn e0keino
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      masc fem neut
     
    Nom e0keinoi e0keinai e0keina
     
    Gen e0keinwn e0keinwn e0keinwn
     
    L.I.D. e0keinoij e0keinaij e0keinoij
     
    Acc e0keinouj e0keinaj e0keina
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the tables above, then translate the sentences below.

    1. ou(toj o( a0nqrwpoj ginwskei e0keinon ton a0nqrwpoj

    2. a0kouomen tauthn thn parabolhn peri thj e0kklhsiaj

    3. ou(toj didaskei touj a0gaqouj kai au0toj didasketai u(po tou kuriou

     

    Lesson 12: Deponent Verbs

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0lla- but e0rxomai- I come
     
    a0pokrinomai- I answer dierxomai- I come through
     
    a0rxw- I rule ei0serxomai- I enter
     
    a0rxomai- I begin e0xerxomai- I come out of
     
    ginomai- I become katerxomai- I come down
     
    poreuomai- I go sunerxomai- I come with
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above.

    Deponent verbs are verbs which appear in the middle or passive form (which have already been learned); but are translated as though in the active form. This makes it essential that the student know which verbs are deponent in form, so that they can be translated correctly. A clue: when verbs are listed in the dictionary as the vocabulary words are, with a middle/passive ending, they are deponent in form, and should be translated actively.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the sentences below.

    1. poreuomai e0k tou oi0kou kai ei0j thn e0kklhsian

    2. o( profhthj e0cerxetai e0k tou i9erou

    3. o( a0nqrwpoj ginetai a0ggeloj tou kuriou

    4. luontai ou(toi douloi u(po tou kuriou

     

    Lesson 13: Imperfect, Active, Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0poqnhskw- I kill nun- now
     
    a0pokteinw- I kill, destroy e0ti- yet, still
     
    dexomai- I receive ou0keti- no longer
     
    e9toimazw- I prepare tote- then
     
    qerapeuw- I heal skotia- darkness
     
    pisteuw- I believe men....de - on the one hand .... on the other hand
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above.

    The following is the conjugation of the imperfect, active, indicative of luw:

     

    e0luon- I was loosing e0luomen- we were loosing
     
    e0luej- you were loosing e0luete- you (pl) were loosing
     
    e0lue- he, she, it was loosing e0luon- they were loosing
     

     

     

    The e at the beginning of the word is called an augment, and it illustrates that this is a secondary tense that expresses past time. When a word begins with a vowel that vowel is lengthened thus:

    a becomes h

    e becomes h

    o becomes w

    For example:

    a0kouw, becomes, in the imperfect, active, indicative, h0kouon and e0geirw becomes h0geiron, etc.

    ASSIGNMENT: Learn the endings of the imperfect, active, indicative as indicated above.

    These endings are added to the stem of the verb, and e is added as the augment (unless there is already a vowel beginning the word, in which case it is lengthened as demonstrated above).

    The imperfect, active, indicative of ei0mi is as follows:

     

    h0mhn - I was h0men - we were
     
    h0j - you were h0te - you (pl) were
     
    h0n - he, she, it was h0san - they were
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the imperfect of ei0mi above.

    The imperfect tense is used to indicate continuous action in past time. I.E., "I am loosing" (present tense); "I was loosing" (imperfect tense).

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the sentences below:

    1. ponhroi h0te, a0gaqoi de e0ste

    2. o9 messiaj a0pestellen (note that when a preposition is attached to an imperfect verb, the prefix of the verb itself is changed, and not the preposition) a0ggelouj proj h9maj

    3. e0n tw/ kosmw/ h0n kai o9 kosmoj ou0k e0ginwsken au0ton

     

    Lesson 14: Imperfect, Middle and Passive, Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    biblion- book kaqarizw - I cleanse
     
    daimonion- demon ou0de- not
     
    e0rgon- work ou0de... ou0de- neither...nor
     
    qalassa- sea ou(pw- not yet

     

    ploion- boat
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The imperfect middle and passive indicatives are identical in form. Thus, the translator must be sensitive to the context to determine whether the verb should be translated middle e0luomhn (I was loosing myself) or passive e0luomhn (I was being loosed).

    The following table shows the form of both the middle and the passive (the translation is, of course the passive. Yet it could also be middle, as stated above, since they are identical in form):

     

    e0luomhn- I am being loosed e0luomeqa- we are being loosed
     
    e0luou- you are being loosed e0luesqe- you are being loosed
     
    e0lueto- he, she, it is being loosed e0luonto- they are being loosed
     

     

     

    Notice that the imperfect middle and passive have the e prefix just as does the imperfect active (and the same rules apply to it). To this prefix is added the verbal stem, and then the connecting vowel, and then the endings; thusly-

    e0+lu+o+mhn, etc.

    A Note On kai

    Kai can mean "and" as learned above; but it can also mean "also, even". Only the context can help decide between these options.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the imperfect middle and passive forms above, and translate the following sentences.

    1. ou(toi oi( logoi e0n tw| bibliw| e0grayonto

    2. tote o0xloj e0ceporeueto proj au0ton, nun de ou0keti e0kporeuetai

     

    Lesson 15: Future, Active and Middle, Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0cw- I shall lead genhsomai- I shall become
     
    a0kousw- I shall hear gnwsomai- I shall know
     
    bleyw- I shall see e0leusomai- I shall come, go
     
    swsw- I shall save lhmyomai- I shall take
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The future active indicative of luw is:

     

    lusw- I shall loose lusomen- we shall loose
     
    luseij- you shall loose lusete- you shall loose
     
    lusei - he, she, it shall loose lusousi- they shall loose
     

     

     

    The future middle indicative of luw is:

     

    lusomai- I shall loose myself lusomeqa- we shall loose ourselves
     
    lush|- you shall loose yourself lusesqe- you shall loose yourself
     
    lusetai- he shall loose himself lusontai- they shall loose themselves
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the future active and middle indicative forms above.

    As the student can see, the future simply adds s to the stem of the verb, and the rest remains the same.

    There are, unfortunately, exceptions to this simple rule which MUST be learned. They are as follows:

    When a stem ends in-

    l, m, n, or r, the s is dropped and the w is accented. I.e., mensw becomes menw.

    k, g, or x before s becomes c; thus a0gw becomes a0cw.

    p, b, or f become y. I.e, blepw becomes bleyw.

    t, d, or q simply drop out. Thus peiqw becomes peisw.

    There are other peculiarities which can best be learned in practice.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the rules above.

    The future, active, indicative of ei0mi is:

     

    e0somai- I shall be e0someqa- we shall be
     
    e0sh|- you shall be e0sesqe- you shall be
     
    e0stai- he shall be e0sontai- they shall be
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the future of ei0mi, above, and translate the following sentences:

    1. a(martwloi men e0ste genhsesqe de ui(oi tou qeou.

    2. tote gnwsontai o(ti au0toj e0stin o( kurioj

    3. lhmyesqe kai ta dwra kai touj oikouj

    4. ai( h(merai ai( kakai e0leusontai

    5. ei0 ponhroj all e0sh| a0gaqoj

    Lesson 16: First Aorist, Active and Middle, Indicative

     

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    h0kousa- I heard e0graya- I wrote
     
    e0bleya- I saw e0pemya- I sent
     
    e0didaca- I taught e0baptisa- I baptized
     
    e0qerapeusa- I healed e0swsa- I saved
     
    e0khruca- I preached e0docasa- I glorified
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The First Aorist Active Indicative is a vn that is completed in the past. The vocabulary words above are all first aorist, active, indicatives, and the way they are translated are the way that all first aorist verbs are translated.

    The form of the verb is obtained by doing the following:

    1- add the augment e (as in the imperfect verb learned earlier; and all the same rules apply as there) to the stem of the verb

    2- add the endings of the first aorist active indicative as shown below:

     

    -sa -samen
     
    -saj -sate
     
    -se(n) -san
     

     

     

    For example, if the stem is luw-

    e0+lu+sa e0+lu+samen

    e0+lu+saj e0+lu+sate

    e0+lu+sen e0+lu+san

    All of which would be translated - I was loosed, etc.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the First Aorist Active Indicative endings above.

    The first aorist middle indicative form is given below: (with the stem of luw)

     

    e0lusamhn- I loosed myself e0lusameqa- we loosed ourselves
     
    e0lusw- you loosed yourself e0lusasqe- you loosed yourself
     
    e0lusato- he loosed himself e0lusanto- they loosed themselves
     

     

     

    The student will note that the augment and the stem remain, as above; but the endings change. These first aorist middle indicative endings must be learned.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the first aorist middle indicative endings above, and translate the following sentences:

    1. e0lusen o( kurioj touj douloj au0tou

    2. e0pemyamen ta tekna e0k tou oi0kou

    3. oi( maqhtai e0docasan ton qeon kai ton ui(on au0tou

     

    Lesson 17: 2nd Aorist Active and Middle Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    e0balon- I threw e0lipon- I left
     
    ei0don- I saw e0paqon- I suffered
     
    e0labon- I took pasxw- I suffer
     
    h0gagon- I led e0peson- I fell
     
    h0negkon- I brought e0fagon- I ate
     
    e0scon- I had
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above. The second aorist, like the first aorist, indicates completed action in the past. 2nd aorist verbs are very irregular, follow no particular pattern, and can only be recognized by the augment (as learned before) the unusual stem, and the endings.

    The 2nd aorist active indicative endings are shown below:

     

    -n -men
     
    -j -te
     
    -none ( or plain n) -n
     

     

     

    The 2nd aorist middle endings are shown below:

     

    -mhn -meqa
     
    -ou -sqe
     
    -to -nto
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the active and middle endings above. As the student can see, the 2nd aorist and the imperfect are identical in form. Only the context and the irregular stem can indicate whether the verb should be translated aorist or imperfect.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences.

    1. e0genonto oi( maqhtai tou kuriou

    2. kai ei0domen ton kurion kai h0kousamen twn logwn au0tou

    3. tauta ei0pete h(min e0n tw| i(erw| e0keina de e0n tw| oi0kw|

     

    Lesson 18: Aorist Passive Indicative and Future Passive Indicative

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    e0blhqhn- I was thrown e0poreuqhn- I went
     
    e0genhqh- I became h0kousqhn- I was heard
     
    e0gnwsqhn- I was known e0leifqhn- I was left
     
    e0didacqhn- I was taught a0pestalhn- I was sent
     
    e0khrucqhn- I was preached e0grafhn- I was written
     
    e0lhmfqhn- I was taken w0fqhn- I was seen
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The Aorist passive of luw is:

     

    e0luqhn- I was loosed e0luqhmen- we were loosed
     
    e0luqhj- you were loosed e0luqhte- you were loosed
     
    e0luqh- he, she, it was loosed e0luqhsan- they were loosed
     

     

     

    Note, that the aorist passive indicative is formed by placing the augment on the stem, and adding the aorist passive endings. I.e., e0+lu+qhn, etc.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the aorist passive indicative forms above.

    The future, passive indicative of luw is:

     

    luqhsomai- I shall be loosed luqhsomeqa- we shall be loosed
     
    luqhsh|- you shall be loosed luqhsesqe- you shall be loosed
     
    luqhsetai- he shall be loosed luqhsontai- they shall be loosed
     

     

     

    Note, again, that the future passive indicative is formed by taking the stem, adding the passive marker, and then adding the future endings; thusly, lu+qh+somai, etc.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the future, passive indicative conjugation above, and translate the following sentences.

    1. e0didacqhte u(po twn e0n e0keinh| th| h(mera| oi( nekroi e0gerqhsontai e0n tw| logw| tou qeou

    2. tauta e0grafh e0n taij grafaij

     

    Lesson 19: Third Declension Nouns

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    ai0wn- eternal pathr- father
     
    a0rxwn- ruler mhthr- mother
     
    e0lpij- hope qugathr- daughter
     
    nuc- night a0rxh- beginning
     
    sarc- flesh a0ggelia- message
     
    xarij- grace koinwnia- fellowship
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    Third declension nouns are irregular. They have irregular stems and irregular endings. The endings below are those COMMONLY used; but there are many, many others. What the student must do, therefore, is learn these basic endings and then learn to recognize these nouns when they occur, and that will only happen with practice!

    These are the normal endings of the third declension:

     

    Singular

     

      masc/fem neuter
     
    Nom. -aj (or none) -none
     
    Gen. -oj -oj
     
    L.I.D. -i -i
     
    Acc. -n or -a -none
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      masc/fem neuter
     
    Nom -ej -a
     
    Gen. -wn -wn
     
    L.I.D. -si -si
     
    Acc. -aj -a
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the normal 3rd declension noun endings above, and translate the following sentences:

    1. e0lpida ou0k e0xomen o(ti ou0 ginwskomen ton kurion

    2. o( logoj mou menei ei0j ton aiwna

    (NOTE: the definite article which comes before the normining case, gender and number)

    This lesson is not quite over, dear student. Please continue on from here with what follows.

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0nastasij- resurrection a(lieuj- fisherman
     
    gnwsij- knowledge a0rxiereuj- high priest
     
    dunamij- power basileuj- king
     
    krisij- judgment grammateuj- scribe
     
    pistij- faith i(ereuj- priest
     
    polij- city i0xquj- fish
     
    stasij- dissension staxuj- grain
     

     

     

    ASSIGNENT: Memorize the vocabulary above and translate the following sentences:

    1. e0swqhmen th| xariti dia pistewj

    2. stasij e0n th| e0kklhsia| e0sti kakh

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    baqoj- depth ai(ma- blood
     
    genoj- generation qelhma- will
     
    e0qnoj- nation o0noma- name
     
    e0qoj- custom pneuma- spirit, or Spirit, or wind
     
    e0leoj- mercy r(hma- word
     
    o0roj- mountain stoma- mouth
     
    skotoj- darkness swma- body
     
    teloj- completion u(dwr- water
     

     

    Lesson 20: Present Participles

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    o0feilw- I owe o0fqalmoj- eye
     
    yeudomai- I lie paraklhtoj- comforter, advocate
     
    fainw- I shine skandalon- stumbling block
     
    a0dikia- unrighteous xeir- hand
     
    i(lasmoj- expiation yeusthj- liar
     
    0Ihsouj- Jesus fwj- light
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The present, active participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut
     
    Nom. luwn luousa luon
     
    Gen. luontoj luoushj luontoj
     
    L.I.D. luonti luoush luonti
     
    Acc. luonta luousan luon
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut
     
    Nom. luontej luousai luonta
     
    Gen. luontwn luouswn luontwn
     
    L.I.D. luousi luousaij luousi
     
    Acc. luontaj luousaj luonta
     

     

     

    The present middle and passive participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. luomenoj luomenh luomenon
     
    Gen. luomenou luomenhj luomenou
     
    L.I.D. luomenw luomenh luomenw
     
    Acc. luomenon luomenhn luomenon
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. luomenoi luomenai luomena
     
    Gen. luomenwn luomenwn luomenwn
     
    L.I.D. luomenoij luomenaij luomenoij
     
    Acc. luomenouj luomenaj luomena
     

     

     

    The Present participle of ei0mi is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. w0n ou0sa o0n
     
    Gen. o0ntoj ou0shj o0ntoj
     
    L.I.D. o0nti ou0sh o0nti
     
    Acc. o0nta ou0san o0n
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. o0ntej ou0sai o0nta
     
    Gen. o0ntwn ou0swn o0ntwn
     
    L.I.D. ou0si ou0saij ou0si
     
    Acc. o0ntaj ou0saj o0nta
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the paradigms above.

    The participle is a verbal adjective. The present participle of any regular verb may be formed by adding the above endings to the stem.

    A participle, as a verb, has tense, voice and mood. And, as an adjective, it has case, gender and number.

    The function of the participle. The participle is used in sentences to describe the action of the subject. As a verb, it shares the tense of the main verb of the sentence, and as an adjective, it shares the case, gender and number of the subject of the sentence.

    Note the following sentences and the way that the participles are translated:

     

    legwn tauta o( a0nqrwpoj blepei ton kurion

    "While saying these things, the man sees the Lord".

     

    blepw ton legonta tauta

    "I See the one who is saying these things".

     

    ebleya ton legonta tauta

    "I saw the one who was saying these things"

    Note: When the article precedes the participle it is translated "the one who...", "he who...". When there is no article it is translated "while" or "as". I.e.,

     

    e0bleya ton a0postolon legonta tauta

    "I saw the apostle while he was saying these things".

     

    e0bleya ton a0postolon ton legonta tauta

    "I was the apostle who was saying these things".

    Participles in Greek nt must grasp well these principles in order to correctly translate them.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the following sentences.

    1. o( dexomenoj se dexetai ton kurion

    2. oi( lambanontej thn xarin tou qeou swzontai

    3. to fwj tou qeou fainei e0n tw kosmw

    4. h0san e0n tw oi0kw tw luomenw

    5. ei0domen ton a0postolon o0nta e0n th e0kklhsia

    .

    Lesson 21: Aorist Active and Middle Participles

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    diwkw - I persecute
     
    mh - not
     
    mhde - not even
     
    mhde....mhde - neither...nor
     
    mhketi - no longer
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The First Aorist active participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      masc. fem. neut.
     
    Nom. lusaj lusasa lusan
     
    Gen. lusantoj lusashj lusantoj
     
    L.I.D. lusanti lusash lusanti
     
    Acc. lusanta lusasan lusan
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      masc. fem. neut.
     
    Nom. lusantej lusasai lusanta
     
    Gen. lusantwn lusaswn lusantwn
     
    L.I.D. lusasi lusasaij lusasi
     
    Acc. lusantaj lusasaj lusanta
     

     

     

    The first aorist Middle participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      masc. fem. neut.
     
    Nom. lusamenoj lusamenh lusamenon
     
    Gen. lusamenou lusamenhj lusamenou
     
    L.I.D. lusamenw lusamenh lusamenw
     
    Acc. lusamenon lusamenhn lusamenon
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      masc. fem. neut.
     
    Nom. absent absent lusamenoiain
     
    Gen. lusamenwn lusamenwn lusamenwn
     
    L.I.D. lusamenoij lusamenaij lusamenoij
     
    Acc. lusamenouj lusamenaj lusamena
     

     

     

    Note: The TIME of action indicated by the Aorist Participle is PRIOR to the action of the main verb. Otherwise, everything else has been noted in the preceding lesson.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the paradigms above and translate the following sentences.

    1. e0celqwn e0k tou oi0kou tauta ei0pen

    2. o( mh i0dwn ton kurion ou0k e0pisteusen ei0j au0ton

    Lesson 22: Aorist Passive Participles

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a(gioj- holy e0piqumia- lust, desire
     
    loipoj- remaining sunagwgh- synagogue
     
    makarioj- blessed swthria- salvation
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above.

    The aorist passive participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. luqeij luqeisa luqen
     
    Gen. luqentoj luqeishj luqentoj
     
    L.I.D. luqenti luqeish luqenti
     
    Acc. luqenta luqeisan luqen
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. luqentej luqeisai luqenta
     
    Gen. luqentwn luqeiswn luqentwn
     
    L.I.D. luqeisi luqeisaij luqeisi
     
    Acc. luqentaj luqeisaj luqenta
     

     

     

    To form the aorist passive participle, simply add the endings to the stem. All the other rules for participles learned earlier also apply here, except that these participive voice and not the active or middle. That is, the subject is passive in the action of the verb.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the tables above.

    NOTE: One of the most frequent uses of the participle is what is called the "genitive absolute". A genitive absolute is a participle in the genitive case plus its noun or pronoun. These two words are independent of the main clause and thus are translated as independent clauses.

    For example, a regular participial phrase is:

     

    • ei0pon tauta oi9 a0postoloi a0phlqon

       

    • "having said these things, the apostles went away".

       

    A genitive absolute looks like this:

     

    • ei0pontwn tauta twn maqhtwn oi9 a0postoloi a0phlqon

       

    • "The disciples having said these things; the apostles went away".

       

    The participle, you see, with its noun is "absolute"; that is, loosed or seperated from the main part of the sentence, and hence is in the genitive case. Practice will make this construction quite clear to recognize and translate.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate the sentences below:

    1. e0pelqontoj tou a(giou pneumatoj e0p au0touj e0labon dunamin

    2. makarioj e0stin o( i0dwn thn swthrian tou qeou

     

    Lesson 23: Perfect Active and Middle Indicative

    The Perfect Active Indicative of luw is:

     

    leluka- I have loosed lelukamen- we have loosed
     
    lelukaj- you have loosed lelukate- you have loosed
     
    leluken- he, she, it has loosed lelukasi- they have loosed
     

     

     

    The perfect middle indicative of luw is:

     

    lelumai- I have loosed myself lelumeqa- we have loosed ourselves
     
    lelusai- you have loosed yourself lelusqe- you have loosed yourselves
     
    lelutai- he has loosed himself leluntai- they have loosed themselves
     

     

     

    NOTE: The perfect is formed by adding a "reduplicating augment" to the stem. This reduplicating augment is formed by taking the first letter of the stem (or in certain cases a similar sounding letter) and adding it to e at the front of the stem. Then, after the stem the endings are added, as before. For instance: le+lu+mai ; the reduplication is l added to e, added to the stem lu, and then the ending mai, etc. See, it's very simple!

    The perfect tense is used to show action completed in the past, but with results that last into the present. For example: leluka = I have loosed (and it remains loosed!). This tense is VERY important theologically, as the student will learn from translating it correctly in the New Testament.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the conjugations above.

    The perfect active participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. lelukwj lelukuia lelukoj
     
    Gen. lelukotoj lelukuiaj lelukotoj
     
    L.I.D. lelukoti lelukuia lelukoti
     
    Acc. lelukota lelukuian lelukoj
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. lelukotej lelukuiai lelukota
     
    Gen. lelukotwn lelukuiwn lelukotwn
     
    L.I.D. lelukosi lelukuiaij lelukosi
     
    Acc. lelukotaj lelukuiaj lelukota
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the perfect active participle abov perfect middle participle of luw is:

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. lelumenoj lelumenh lelumenon
     
    Gen. lelumenou lelumenhj lelumenou
     
    L.I.D. lelumenw lelumenh lelumenw
     
    Acc. lelumenon lelumenhn lelumenon
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. lelumenoi lelumenai lelumena
     
    Gen. lelumenwn lelumenwn lelumenwn
     
    L.I.D. lelumenoij lelumenaij lelumenoij
     
    Acc. lelumenouj lelumenaj lelumena
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the perfect middle participle above, and translate the following sentences.

    1. ta gegrammena e0n tw bibliw tou nomou e0stin a0gaqa

    2. xariti e0ste seswsmenoi dia pistewj

    3. oi9 bebaptismenoi maqhtai ei0sin e0n th e0kklhsia

    Lesson 24: The Subjunctive Mood

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    dikaiosunh righteousness
     
    eu0aggelizomai I preach the gospel
     
    marturia witness, martyr
     
    oi0kia house
     
    paidion child
     
    e0an (with subjunctive) if
     
    ei0 (with indicative) if
     
    i9na (with subjunctive) in order that
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The verbs we have studied so far have all been indicative in mood. (Remember, verbs have voice (active or passive), tense (past, present, future, etc), and mood.

    The subjunctive mood indicates action that is possible or potential. For example:

    • Indicative Mood- The child runs (indicating action taking place).

       

    • Subjunctive Mood- If the child runs, he will escape (possible action).

       

    • Optative Mood- Oh, that the child would run! (indicating a wish).

       

    • Imperative Mood- Run, child (indicating a command or order).

       

    We have learned verbs of the indicative mood and we are now learning verbs of the subjunctive mood (the other two moods listed above will be learned later, but are given here for purposes of comparison).

    The subjunctive mood is used in the following ways:

     

    1- The Hortatory Subjunctive- exhorting someone to action.

    2- The Prohibitive Subjunctive- action is prohibited.

    3- The Deliberative Subjunctive- the same as the rhetorical question in English.

     

    These possibilities will be clear in the context of the sentence which is being translated.

    The Subjunctive Mood is also used in conditional sentences. In the Greek New Testament there are 4 kinds of conditional sentences. They are:

     

    • 1st Class- The reality of the condition is affirmed.

      (ei0 with the indicative mood)

       

    • 2nd Class- The contrary to fact condition.

      (ei0 with the indicative followed by an with the indicative)

       

    • 3rd Class- The Probable Future condition

      (e0an with the subjunctive)

       

    • 4th Class- The possible future condition

      (ei0 with the optative followed by an with the optative)

       

    For Example:

     

    • 1st class- Since he is studying Greek, he will learn Greek.

       

    • 2nd class- If he had studied, he would have learned Greek

       

    • 3rd class- If he studies, he will learn Greek

       

    • 4th class- If he would study, he would learn Greek.

       

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the uses of the Subjunctive mood and the 4 classes of conditional sentences above.

    Now we will learn the forms of the Subjunctive Mood.

    The Present Subjunctive of ei0mi is:

     

    w0 w0men
     
    h0ab w0sin
     

     

     

    The Present Active Subjunctive of luw is:

     

    luw luwmen
     
    luhj luhte
     
    luh luwsin
     

     

     

    The First Aorist Active Subjunctive of luw is:

     

    lusw luswmen
     
    lushj lushte
     
    lush luswsin
     

     

     

    The present Middle and Passive Subjunctive of luw is:

     

    luwmai luwmeqa
     
    luh luhsqe
     
    luhtai luwntai
     

     

     

    The 1st Aorist Passive Subjunctive of luw is:

     

    luqw luqwmen
     
    luqhj luqhte
     
    luqh luqwsin
     

     

     

    Notice that the paradigms above have no translation with them. This is because subjunctive verbs cannot be correctly translated without a context. The student must know whether a sentence containing a subjunctive verb is 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th class to correctly render it. There will be plenty of time to practice translating these verbs -- they are all over the New Testament.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the paradigms above, and translate the following sentences.

    1. ei0 au0th e0stin h9 marturia tou i0dontoj ton kurion pisteuw au0thn

    2. ei0 e0khruxaj to eu0aggelion, oi9 a0n a9martwloi e0pisteusan

    3. e0an ei0selqhte ei0j thn oi0kian tou maqhtou, didacai u9min touj logouj thj zwhj

    4. mh ei0selqhj ei0j touj oi0kouj twn ponerwn

    Lesson 25: The Imperative Mood

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a9giazw- I sanctify pinw- I drink
     
    qelw- I will, wish speirw- I sow
     
    ou0j- ear a0xri- until
     
      prin- before
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The imperative mood appears in the New Testament in only the present and aorist tenses. There is no 1st person in the imperative mood. The 2nd person is translated as a command, and the third person with "let him..." etc.

    The present active imperative of luw is:

     

    2nd lue luete
     
    3rd luetw luetwsan
     

     

     

    The present middle and passive imperative of luw is:

     

    2nd luou luesqe
     
    3rd luesqw luesqwsan
     

     

     

    The 1st Aorist active imperative of luw is:

     

    2nd luson lusate
     
    3rd lusatw lusatwn
     

     

     

    The 1st aorist middle imperative of luw is:

     

    2nd lusai lusasqe
     
    3rd lusasqw lusasqwsan
     

     

     

    The 1st aorist passive imperative of luw is:

     

    2nd luqhti luqhte
     
    3rd luqhtw luqhtwsan
     

     

     

    The Present Imperative of ei0mi is:

     

    2nd i0sqi e0ste
     
    3rd e0stw e0stwsan
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the paradigms above and translate the following sentences.

    1. a9giaze to i9eron tou qeou

    2. kurie, katabhqi prin a0poqanein to paidion mou

     

    Lesson 26: Contract Verbs

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0gapaw- I love parakalew- I exhort, I comfort
     
    dhlow- I show peripatew- I walk around
     
    eu0logew- I bless poiew- I do , I make
     
    eu0xaristew- I give thanks staurow- I crucify
     
    zhtew- I seek threw- I do, I keep
     
    qewrew- I behold timaw- I honor
     
    kalew- I call filew- I love
     
    lalew- I speak  
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    Contract verbs are verb whose stems end in a, o, or e. Because a connecting vowel is added to the stem when a verb is formed, these verbs undergo a change. The following table shows how the connecting vowel, when added to the vowel at the end of the stem, change:

     

    Connecting Vowel   e h ei h| o w ou oi
     
    Stem Vowel: e ei h ei h| ou w ou oi
     
      a a a a| a| w w w w|
     
      o ou w oi oi ou w ou oi
     

     

     

    I.e., when the connecting vowel is e and the stem ends in e, the resulting vowel is ei, etc.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the contract verb table above, and translate the following sentences.

    1. e0zhtoun au0ton oi9 ponhroi, i9na qewrwsi ta poioumena u9p au0tou.

    2. o9 maqhthj e0lalhsen tauta toij peripatousin e0n tw i9erw.

    3. o9 0Ihsouj legei tw maqhth, Simwn, fileij me;

    Lesson 27: Pronouns

     

    We have already learned the personal pronouns and the demonstrative pronouns. he other kinds of Greek pronouns. All of these will be declined, just like all the other nouns and pronouns we have studied.

    1- The relative pronoun, o9j, who, which, that.

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. o9j h9 o9
     
    Gen. ou9 h9j ou9
     
    L.I.D. w9 h9 w9
     
    Acc. o9n h9n o9
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. oi9 ai9 a9
     
    Gen. w9n w9n w9n
     
    L.I.D. oi9j ai9j oi9j
     
    Acc. ou9j a9j a9
     

     

     

    (Notice that each of these has a rough breathing mark, which will distinguish them from the definite article already learned.).

    As we learned in out study of the other nouns and pronouns, a noun or pronoun agrees in gender, case and number with the word it is referring to. Please remember this VERY important rule during this lesson as well.

    2- The interrogative pronoun tij, who?, what?

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. tij tij ti
     
    Gen. tinoj tinoj tinoj
     
    L.I.D. tini tini tini
     
    Acc. tina tina ti
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. tinej tinej tina
     
    Gen. tinwn tinwn tinwn
     
    L.I.D. tisin tisin tisin
     
    Acc. tinaj tinaj tina
     

     

     

    3- The indefinite pronoun, tij, ti, someone, something. (same as above, accept no accent marks are used in the printed Greek text).

    4- The indefinite relative pronoun o9stij, who. This pronoun occurs ONLY in the nominative case in the singular and plural.

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. o9stij h9tij o9ti
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. oi9tinej ai9tinej a9tina
     

     

     

    5- The Reflexive pronouns.

    First person, myself.

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem.
     
    Gen. e0mautou e0mauthj
     
    L.I.D. e0mautw e0mauth
     
    Acc. e0mauton e0mauthn
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem.
     
    Gen. e9autwn e9autwn
     
    L.I.D. e9autoij e9autaij
     
    Acc. e9autouj e9autaj
     

     

     

    Second Person, yourself

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem.
     
    Gen. seautou seauthj
     
    L.I.D. seautw seauth
     
    Acc. seauton seauthn
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem.
     
    Gen. e9autwn e9autwn
     
    L.I.D. e9autoij e9autaij
     
    Acc. e9autouj e9autaj
     

     

     

    Third Person, himself, herself, itself.

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Gen. e9autou e9authj e9autou
     
    L.I.D. e9autw e9auth e9autw
     
    Acc. e9auton e9authn e9auto
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Gen. e9autwn e9autwn e9autwn
     
    L.I.D. e9autoij e9autaij e9autoij
     
    Acc. e9autouj e9autaj e9auta
     

     

     

    6- The reciprocal pronoun a0llhlwn, one another.

    This occurs only in these three forms in the New Testament: a0llhlwn, a0llhloij, and a0llhlouj. In function it shows an interaction between two subjects. I.e., a0gapwmen a0llhlouj, "let us love one another", etc.

    7- The possessive pronouns.

    First person, e0moj,

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut
     
    Nom. e0moj e0mh e0mon
     
    Gen. e0mou e0mhj e0mou
     
    L.I.D. e0mw e0mh e0mw
     
    Acc. e0mon e0mhn e0mon
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut
     
    Nom. e0moi e0mai e0ma
     
    Gen. e0mwn e0mwn e0mwn
     
    L.I.D. e0moij e0maij e0moij
     
    Acc. e0mouj e0maj e0ma
     

     

     

    The second person is soj, (masculine) sh, (feminine) and son (neuter) and is declined as the first person.

    The third person is i0dioj (masculine), i0dia, (feminine) and i0dion (neuter) and is also declined as the first person.

    The plurals are h9meteroj, -a, -on for the first person, and u9meteroj, -a, -on for the second person.

    8- The Negative Pronouns.

    ou0deij- no one, usually with the indicative mood.

    mhdeij- usually with the other moods.

    The negative pronoun occurs only in the singular, and both are easily recognized in every case, gender, and number.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the paradigms above for the pronouns and translate I John 1:5-10.

    Lesson 28: Adjectives

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    0a0lhqhj true
     
    megaj great
     
    paj every
     
    poluj much, many
     

     

     

    The following are examples of adjectives that do not follow the patterns that we have already learned.

    1- The declension of paj, pasa, pan, all.

     

    Singular

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. paj pasa pan
     
    Gen. pantoj pashj pantos
     
    L.I.D. panti pash panti
     
    Acc. panta pasan pan
     

     

     

     

    Plural

     

      Masc. Fem. Neut.
     
    Nom. pantej pasai panta
     
    Gen. pantwn paswn pantwn
     
    L.I.D. pasin pasaij pasin
     
    Acc. pantaj pasaj panta
     

     

     

    The rest of the adjectives which occur in the New Testament are regular enough that the student should be able to recognize the gender, case and number of any adjective.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above, and translate I John 2:1-6.

     

    Lesson 29: Verbs of the -mi conjugation

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    didwmi I give
     
    i9sthmi I stand
     
    tiqhmi I place, I put
     

     

     

    Assignment: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    Verbs of the -mi conjugation are fairly frequent in the New Testament. The student will easily recognize them because they will not have a stem that is relatively easy to spot! For instance, the stem of luw is lu, while the stem of didwmi is do, and the stem of i9sthmi is sta, and the stem of tiqhmi is qe.

    So, when you are translating along and you cannot seem to locate a word in the dictionary, look to see if it is -mi verb.

    The endings of the -mi verb are in the present indicative are:

     

    -mi -men
     
    -j -te
     
    -ti -asi
     

     

     

    These verbs can be easily enough recognized as regular (in their irregularity!).

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate I John 2:7-11

    Lesson 30: The Article

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0lazonia- vainglory e0gnwka- I have known
     
    a0fihmi- I forgive neaniskoj- young man
     
    bioj- life nikaw- I conquer
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    We have already discussed the general use of the definite article. In this lesson we will look at some specialized uses of the article.

    1- With the conjunction kai.

    When two nouns have one article, they are both referring to the same thing, i.e., o9 a0postoloj kai maqhthj means "the disciple (who is) the apostle".

    Other specialized uses can be noted by the student in advanced studies.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the material above, and translate I John 2:12-17.

     

    Lesson 31: The Infinitive

     

    Vocabulary:

     

    a0ntixristoj- antichrist o9mologew- I confess
     
    a0rneomai- I deny fanerow- I make manifest
     
    oi0da- I know yeudoj- lie
     

     

     

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above.

    The infinitive can be used as both a verb and a noun. When it is used as a verb it expresses the purpose of the main verb; i.e., "the child likes to run". In this example, "likes" is the main verb, and "to run", the infinitive, expresses what the child likes to do.

    When the infinitive is used as a noun it is simply being used as the object of the main verb. Examples of this kind of usage abound in the New Testament.

    ASSIGNMENT: Translate I John 2:18-29.

    ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary above and translate the following sentences:

    1. ginwskomen kai to qelhma kai thn a0gaphn tou qeou

    2. e0gw men baptizw u(maj e0n u(dati, e0keinoj de baptisei u(maj e0n tw| pneumati

     

     


    Conclusion

    Well, dear student, if you have done all of the work asked of you you have in hand the necessary tools with which to study the New Testament in its original language.

    What you must do now is read, read, and read some more in the New Testament itself. Translation is an art as well as a skill; and only by practice can your translating arrive at that level.

    Farewell, and stick with it.

    Greek Dictionary

     

    A B G D E Z H Q I K L M N X O P R S T U F C Y W
    1 (a) to 100 (hadrotes)
    101 (adunateo) to 200 (akris)
    201 (akroaterion) to 300 (Amon)
    301 (Amos) to 400 (anaphoneo)
    401 (anachusis) to 500 (antichristos)
    501 (antleo) to 600 (apokathistemi)
    601 (apokalupto) to 700 (aresko)
    701 (arestos) to 800 (asumphonos)
    801 (asunetos) to 900 (bathuno)
    901 (bathus) to 1000 (bole)
    1001 (bolizo) to 1100 (glossa)
    1101 (glossokomon) to 1200 (desmophulax)
    1201 (desmoterion) to 1300 (diateleo)
    1301 (diatereo) to 1400 (doulon)
    1401 (doulos) to 1500 (eike)
    1501 (eikosi) to 1600 (ekpetannumi)
    1601 (ekpipto) to 1700 (emou)
    1701 (empaigmos) to 1800 (Enos)
    1801 (enotizomai) to 1900 (epekeina)
    1901 (epekteinomai) to 2000 (episphales)
    2001 (episucho) to 2100 (euaresteo)
    2101 (euarestos) to 2200 (zestos)
    2201 (zeugos) to 2300 (theaomai)
    2301 (theatrizo) to 2400 (idou)
    2401 (Idoumaia) to 2500 (Ioses)
    2501 (Ioseph) to 2600 (katabasis)
    2601 (katabibazo) to 2700 (katatoxeuo)
    2701 (katatrecho) to 2800 (klasis)
    2801 (klasma) to 2900 (krataios)
    2901 (krataioo) to 3000 (latreuo)
    3001 (lachanon) to 3100 (matheteuo)
    3101 (mathetes) to 3200 (membrana)
    3201 (memphomai) to 3300 (Not Used)
    3301 (Not Used) to 3400 (milion)
    3401 (mimeomai) to 3500 (nekrosis)
    3501 (neos) to 3600 (odunao)
    3601 (odune) to 3700 (optanomai)
    3701 (optasia) to 3800 (opsonion)
    3801 (ho on) to 3900 (paraptoma)
    3901 (pararrhueo) to 4000 (pentakischilioi)
    4001 (pentakosioi) to 4100 (pisteuo)
    4101 (pistikos) to 4200 (porismos)
    4201 (Porkios) to 4300 (prokuroo)
    4301 (prolambano) to 4400 (procheirizomai)
    4401 (procheirotoneo) to 4500 (rhoizedon)
    4501 (rhomphaia) to 4600 (siagon)
    4601 (sigao) to 4700 (spodos)
    4701 (spora) to 4800 (suzao)
    4801 (suzeugnumi) to 4900 (sunelauno)
    4901 (sunepimartureo) to 5000 (Tabitha)
    5001 (tagma) to 5100 (tis)
    5101 (tis) to 5200 (hugros)
    5201 (hudria) to 5300 (hus)
    5301 (hussopos) to 5400 (phobetron)
    5401 (phobos) to 5500 (cheirotoneo)
    5501 (cheiron) to 5600 (o)
    5601 (Obed) to 5624 ()

     

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    Matthew 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
    Mark 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
    Luke 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
    John 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
    Acts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
    Romans 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
    1 Corinthians 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
    2 Corinthians 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
    Galatians 1 2 3 4 5 6
    Ephesians 1 2 3 4 5 6
    Philippians 1 2 3 4
    Colossians 1 2 3 4
    1 Thessalonians 1 2 3 4 5
    2 Thessalonians 1 2 3
    1 Timothy 1 2 3 4 5 6
    2 Timothy 1 2 3 4
    Titus 1 2 3
    Philemon 1
    Hebrews 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
    James 1 2 3 4 5
    1 Peter 1 2 3 4 5
    2 Peter 1 2 3
    1 John 1 2 3 4 5
    2 John 1
    3 John 1
    Jude 1
    Revelation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

     

     

    Listen to New Testament in Greek Language

    Marilyn Phemister's

    Greek New Testament

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    Wescott-Hort Greek New Testament, 1881, read by Marilyn Phemister. Copyright 2001 by Marilyn Phemister. Used by permission.

     

    Matthew: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

    Mark: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    Luke: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

    John: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

    Acts: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

    Romans: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    1 Corinthians: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    2 Corinthians: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    Galatians: 1 2 3 4 5 6

    Ephesians: 1 2 3 4 5 6

    Philippians: 1 2 3 4

    Colossians: 1 2 3 4

    1 Thessalonians: 1 2 3 4 5

    2 Thessalonians: 1 2 3

    1 Timothy: 1 2 3 4 5 6

    2 Timothy: 1 2 3 4

    Titus: 1 2 3

    Philemon: 1

    Hebrews: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    James: 1 2 3 4 5

    1 Peter: 1 2 3 4 5

    2 Peter: 1 2 3

    1 John: 1 2 3 4 5

    2 John: 1

    3 John: 1

    Jude: 1

    Revelation: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

     

     

       Trinity College of Biblical Studies-Free Online Bible College

           Introduction to NT Greek

    Introduction to New Testament Greek covers some essential elements of the grammar of Greek and introduces some basic vocabulary. It introduces students to aspects of translation of New Testament Greek  as well as the main lexical aids. On completion of the subject students should be able to translate basic nominal and verbal sentences.

     

     

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