Intertestamental Literature

A survey of intertestamental history from 600 to 5 B.C. with special attention given to the literature of the period as a theological bridge between the Old and New Covenants. Areas of study include OT Apocrypha and selections from the OT Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the development of apocalyptic literature and rabbinic Judaism.


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The course surveys the main historical events and important literary achievements of Hellenistic Judaism from ca. 600 BC – 5 BC. The professor will emphasize important theological developments that contributed to the mindset of Judeans during this period.Also the course will survey the Apocrypha, Pseudipigrapha, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Tannaitic Rabbinic literature relevant to the period under investigation.


1. Enable students to broadly outline the flow of historical events in Judea during the Hellenistic period.

2. Expose students to the primary sources that record the events and theological developments of this period.

3. Enable students to define the themes and describe the basic content of the Apocrypha and other relevant literature of the period.

4. Enable students to relate the literature of this period to both the Old and New Testaments.

5. Enable students to trace the origins of the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Qumran community, Samaritans, zealots, tax-collectors and other groups that play a significant role in the New Testament.


Holy Bible with Apocrypha, online material, and handouts


1. Students are expected to complete the following in order to make a passing grade in the class.

 2. Research paper

A research paper of 6 pages (12 point, type written, double spaced) will allow the student to investigate a particular issue of Judio/Christian practice addressed in the class material. Many examples of topics may be gleaned from the list of class topics. Please obtain in advance the instructor’s approval for the topic you propose to research. Include documentation and bibliography.

3. Theology paper

A theology paper of 8-10 pages (12 point, type written, double spaced). For this paper, a particular doctrinal theme may be traced throughout all or part of the class material; or a practical issue may be chosen and investigated regarding its associated theological implications.

PPtolemiesapers should not merely report the results of research, but should show that the student is evaluating and processing the material. Be sure that 1) research regarding social/historical background, 2) exegesis of relevant passages of the class material, Apocrypha, Pseudipigrapha, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Tannaitic Rabbinic literature. Work should be free of grammar and spelling mistakes

4. Complete all Reading Assignments

5. Pass all Tests and Quizzes

6. Make a timeline of the Intertestamental Period with all major events

                        COURSE EVALUATION AND GRADING SCALE                                     

Category Percent of Final Grade

Required Reading 10%

Quizzes 15%

               Research Paper 15%

               Theology Paper 20%

Final 40%

    Grade Range

 A 90-100

B 79-89

C 68-78

D 57-67

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Reading Assignments(Click on links to view)

Background History

Sketches of Jewish Social Life

Intertestamental Studies

Apocrypha the Bridge of the Testaments

The Wars Of The Jews


The Dead Sea Scrolls 

                                      Prophesies concerning the coming of the Messiah                                     

Dead Sea Scrolls

Background of the Silent Years

Silent Years

The Essences

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Images of Herods Dynasty

    Solomon's Temple Model

Roman Links

Ancient History Sourcebook of Rome

British Museum Virtual Tour of Cleopatra VII$+with+all_unique_id_index+is+$=ENC7678&submit-button=summaryAlexander the Great

Ancient Roman Images

Virtual Tour of Modern Rome

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Ancient Art



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