Old Testament Apocalyptic Literature

Course description:

A survey of the development of apocalyptic literature in the OT (Isaiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah) and the intertestamental period (2 Esdras and Enoch). This survey includes an introduction to the character of apocalyptic, foundational principles for the interpretation of apocalyptic, and an evaluation of apocalyptic as a communicative and revelatory


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Holy Bile, Apocrypha Literature, handouts and assigned reading by the Professor  

Course requirements:

b. One (1) research paper, ten to fifteen pages in length, focusing upon the teaching of this class. Your task in this paper will be to justify thoroughly why these works are considered to be "apocalyptic," based upon the principles and characteristics that will be elaborated throughout the course. The paper must be typed (double-spaced). The paper accounts for 25% of the final grade.

c. Mastery of the assigned readings and diligent  are necessary prerequisites for the successful completion of this course. Each student is responsible for all lectures, class discussions, assignments, handouts, and announcements, whether or not he/she is present when they occur.

d. Theology Paper--Theology paper of 8-10 pages (12 point, type written, double spaced) will give opportunity for the student to read the material of this class not just for knowledge, but as instructions for believers based on solid Christian doctrine. For this paper, a particular doctrinal theme may be traced throughout all or part of the this class or a practical issue may be chosen and investigated regarding its associated theological implications. Papers should not merely report the results of research, but should show that the student is evaluating and processing the material. Work should be free of grammar and spelling mistakes.

Miscellaneous information:

a. The grading scale used in this course is as follows: 91-100 A; 81-90 B; 71-80 C; 61-70 D; and 0-60 F.

b. One of the requirements of this course is to complete the work of the course on:

1) All examinations must be completed by the end of the class

2) The student may elect to "drop" one (1) of the previous exam scores (presumably the lowest). If this option is exercised, the student must sit for a comprehensive final examination at the time and date officially decreed by the administration for the relevant class section. The score of this "final exam" will then replace the earlier exam grade for the purposes of course evaluation. Students who are satisfied with their semester's work are not obligated to sit for this exam.



1. Introduction

2. Characteristics of apocalyptic writings

3. The background of apocalyptic

Jewish apocalypticism

4. The Enochic corpus
A. Book of Watchers 143-162
B. Animal Apocalypse 41-53
C. Apocalypse of Weeks 54-57
D. Similitudes 163-187

5. Testament of Levi & Testament of Moses 188-92; 214-223

6. 4 Ezra 58-96

7. 2 Baruch 97-142

Christian apocalypticism

8. Ascension of Isaiah 277-290

9. Apocalypse of Peter 243-254

10. Apocalypse of Paul 291-325

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Required Reading

Pseudepigrapha-An account of certain apocryphal sacred writings of the Jews and early Christians

2 Esdras

The Psalms of Solomon

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

The Book of Enoch

The Assumption of Moses

The Book of Jubilees

The Ascension of Isaiah

Sibylline Oracles

Read Old Testament Scriptures

Old Testament Apocalyptic Literature

Isaiah 2:1-5.

Isaiah Chapters 11, 13, 14,24-27

Ezekiel Chapters 24-43

The Book of Daniel

Joel Chapter 2

The Book of Zechariah 

The Essences

Listen to  Excerpt about the Essences

Symbols of the Four Evangelists


Biblical Art for Daniels Visions

Daniel's Visions and Prayer


The Four Beasts


The Ram and the Goat


The Seventy Weeks


The Vision at Tigris


The Kings of the South and the North


The End Times


The Glory of the Nation Restored


The Prophet as Israel's Watchman


The False Shepherds and the Good Shepherd


A New Heart and a New Spirit


The Valley of Dry Bones


Gog's Attack and Punishment


Israel Restored


The New Sanctuary


The Glory Returns to the Temple


The Altar


The Prince, the Levites, the Priests


Measuring and Offering


The River from the Temple

Early Prophecies of Isaiah


The Mountain of the Lord in the Last Days


The Song of the Vineyard

The Call of Isaiah

The Present World and the Coming of Messiah


The Unfaithfulness and Punishment of Ahaz


The Sign of Immanuel


Assyria, the Lord's Instrument


The Prince of Peace


The Branch from Jesse, the Kingdom of Peace


Israel's Praise for the Lord's Salvation


The Eight Visions


The Angel Speaking to Zechariah


The Horseman among the Myrtle Trees


Four Horns and Four Craftsmen


Joshua, the High Priest


The Lampstand and the Olive Trees


The Woman in a Basket


The Four Chariots


The Coming of Zion's King


Two Shepherds



The Day of the Lord



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